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论文题目: Identification of Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase as a Novel Host Restriction Factor and a Part of the Primary Innate Immune Responses against Hepatitis C Virus Infection
英文论文题目: Identification of Cholesterol 25-Hydroxylase as a Novel Host Restriction Factor and a Part of the Primary Innate Immune Responses against Hepatitis C Virus Infection
第一作者: Xiang, Y; Tang, JJ; Tao, WY; Cao, XZ; Song, BL; Zhong, J
英文第一作者: Xiang, Y; Tang, JJ; Tao, WY; Cao, XZ; Song, BL; Zhong, J
联系作者: Zhong, J (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Pasteur Shanghai, Key Lab Mol Virol & Immunol, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
英文联系作者: Zhong, J (reprint author), Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Pasteur Shanghai, Key Lab Mol Virol & Immunol, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
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发表年度: 2015
卷: 89
期: 13
页码: 6805-6816
摘要: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, causes chronic liver diseases, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer. HCV infection is critically dependent on host lipid metabolism, which contributes to all stages of the viral life cycle, including virus entry, replication, assembly, and release. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC) plays a critical role in regulating lipid metabolism, modulating immune responses, and suppressing viral pathogens. In this study, we showed that 25HC and its synthesizing enzyme cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) efficiently inhibit HCV infection at a postentry stage. CH25H inhibits HCV infection by suppressing the maturation of SREBPs, critical transcription factors for host lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, CH25H is upregulated upon poly(I-C) treatment or HCV infection in hepatocytes, which triggers type I and III interferon responses, suggesting that the CH25H induction constitutes a part of host innate immune response. To our surprise, in contrast to studies in mice, CH25H is not induced by interferons in human cells and knockdown of STAT-1 has no effect on the induction of CH25H, suggesting CH25H is not an interferon-stimulated gene in humans but rather represents a primary and direct host response to viral infection. Finally, knockdown of CH25H in human hepatocytes significantly increases HCV infection. In summary, our results demonstrate that CH25H constitutes a primary innate response against HCV infection through regulating host lipid metabolism. Manipulation of CH25H expression and function should provide a new strategy for anti-HCV therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Recent studies have expanded the critical roles of oxysterols in regulating immune response and antagonizing viral pathogens. Here, we showed that one of the oxysterols, 25HC and its synthesizing enzyme CH25H efficiently inhibit HCV infection at a postentry stage via suppressing the maturation of transcription factor SREBPs that regulate lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, we found that CH25H expression is upregulated upon poly(I-C) stimulation or HCV infection, suggesting CH25H induction constitutes a part of host innate immune response. Interestingly, in contrast to studies in mice showing that ch25h is an interferon-stimulated gene, CH25H cannot be induced by interferons in human cells but rather represents a primary and direct host response to viral infection. Our studies demonstrate that the induction of CH25H represents an important host innate response against virus infection and highlight the role of lipid effectors in host antiviral strategy.
英文摘要: Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, causes chronic liver diseases, including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancer. HCV infection is critically dependent on host lipid metabolism, which contributes to all stages of the viral life cycle, including virus entry, replication, assembly, and release. 25-Hydroxycholesterol (25HC) plays a critical role in regulating lipid metabolism, modulating immune responses, and suppressing viral pathogens. In this study, we showed that 25HC and its synthesizing enzyme cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) efficiently inhibit HCV infection at a postentry stage. CH25H inhibits HCV infection by suppressing the maturation of SREBPs, critical transcription factors for host lipid biosynthesis. Interestingly, CH25H is upregulated upon poly(I-C) treatment or HCV infection in hepatocytes, which triggers type I and III interferon responses, suggesting that the CH25H induction constitutes a part of host innate immune response. To our surprise, in contrast to studies in mice, CH25H is not induced by interferons in human cells and knockdown of STAT-1 has no effect on the induction of CH25H, suggesting CH25H is not an interferon-stimulated gene in humans but rather represents a primary and direct host response to viral infection. Finally, knockdown of CH25H in human hepatocytes significantly increases HCV infection. In summary, our results demonstrate that CH25H constitutes a primary innate response against HCV infection through regulating host lipid metabolism. Manipulation of CH25H expression and function should provide a new strategy for anti-HCV therapeutics. IMPORTANCE Recent studies have expanded the critical roles of oxysterols in regulating immune response and antagonizing viral pathogens. Here, we showed that one of the oxysterols, 25HC and its synthesizing enzyme CH25H efficiently inhibit HCV infection at a postentry stage via suppressing the maturation of transcription factor SREBPs that regulate lipid biosynthesis. Furthermore, we found that CH25H expression is upregulated upon poly(I-C) stimulation or HCV infection, suggesting CH25H induction constitutes a part of host innate immune response. Interestingly, in contrast to studies in mice showing that ch25h is an interferon-stimulated gene, CH25H cannot be induced by interferons in human cells but rather represents a primary and direct host response to viral infection. Our studies demonstrate that the induction of CH25H represents an important host innate response against virus infection and highlight the role of lipid effectors in host antiviral strategy.
刊物名称: JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
英文刊物名称: JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY
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学科: Virology
英文学科: Virology
影响因子: 4.439
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论文类别: Article
英文论文类别: Article
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